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1 Race engine…


1.1 Specification of one race engine


1.1.1 Race engine specifications

1.1.2 Description of race engine parts

1.1.3 Engine part role


1.2 The design philosophie


1.2.1 The function association

1.2.2 The efficiency.


1.3 Conclusion





1.1 Specification of one race engine:


            1.1.1 Race engine specifications:






A race engine must respond to several criteria, such as:


  1. The inertia centre position and the weight: that must be as low as possible. When the engine is light, the position of the car ballast can alter the car inertia centre. So, the car speed in the corner increases.


  1. The integration in the car: we must limit the number of water and oil pipes. That allows us to reduce the weight and to increase the engine reliability. So, the engine connections must be very simple to remove.


  1. The engine vibrations: It must be as low as possible. A race engine is fixed on the car with rigid mounting.


  1. The engine rigidity: A race engine contributes to the car rigidity. The more rigid the car is, the easier suspension tuning is.





                        1.1.2 Description of race engine parts:





1 : crankshaft, 2 : sump, 3 : block, 4 : flywheel, 5 : cylinder head, 6 : cam cover, 7 : inlet throttle, 8 : piston, 9 : con rod, 10 : water and oil pumps, 11 : scavenge pumps, 12 : valves and springs valves, 13 : distribution gears, 14 : front cover



                        1.1.3 Engine part role:













1.2 The design philosophie:



            The engine weight must be as low as possible. We achieve this with the function association and the system efficiency. The examples are representative of our design philosophy.  The light alloy is used in order to reduce the weight to the minimum, but the light alloy use is not the first step for the weigh reduction. The first step is about the function association and the system efficiency.


                        1.2.1 The function association:


            Each engine part allows one function (the oil pressure pump allows the oil movement, etc…). This function weighs for example 150 g. The speed sensor weighs 50 g. Both parts (oil pressure pump and the speed sensor) weigh 200 g. If the speed sensor could be integrated into one oil pump bearing, we could reduce this new part weigh, for example, up to 175 g.






                        1.2.2 The efficiency:


            Each engine part must have the best efficiency. This is the clever solution for the engine weigh reduction. Moreover, the engine efficiency could be considerably improved. For example, the water which cools the engine must:







            On this scheme, we had reduced to the minimum the length of the arrows which symbolise the water pipes. So, we have reduced the water cooling weight.


            We have the same design philosophy for each engine part (water, oil, electric cable…). In summary, the engine doesn’t look like “spaghetti”…


1.3 Conclusion:


            All race engines have the same philosophy, but the design must be very clever because a race engine propels the car and is the major element which gives the car rigidity, the mass distribution and the inertia centre position.


            We need to find the best solutions before the final design, the casting and the machining. The tooling costs are very important and the design must be good from the start. So, we had to integrate in order to reach our targets. 


            When the technical choices are ingenious, the solution must be as simple as possible. A engine parts must integrate as many functions as possible. But the function integration and the simplicity increase the casting costs. So, we must decide which is the most cost efficient within the business plan.  


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Exemple of one 120° V6 engine


View of the timing chain track







View of the scavange and oil pressure pump